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使用止血带应注意些什么

  止血带止血法适用于四肢创伤引起的动脉出血或其他止血方法未能奏效的出血。止血带可阻断肢体血液循环而达到有效的止血的目的,但也能由此而造成肢体坏疽的危险。常用的止血带的种类有橡皮止血带、气性止血带、布制止血带等。只有正确地使用止血带才能既发挥止血作用,又能防止和减少其并发症的发生。那么使用止血带止血应注意些什么? Tourniquets method is suitable for the limb trauma caused by arterial hemorrhage or other bleeding hemostatic method failed. A tourniquet can block the body blood circulation and achieve the goal of effective hemostasis, but also can thus cause the danger of limb gangrene. The types of common tourniquet rubber tourniquet, became a tourniquet, cloth tourniquet, etc. Only proper use of a tourniquet can both play a role of bleeding, and can prevent and reduce the occurrence of its complications.Then using tourniquets should pay attention to what?
  1.止血带使用前应将患肢抬高片刻,使静脉回流后再使用。 1. A tourniquet limb should be up for a moment, before use make the venous return after use. 2.止血带部位应放在伤口的近心端。
  2. A tourniquet parts should be placed on the wound near the heart. 一般上肢在上臂的上1/3的部位,下肢在大腿的中、下1/3交界处。上臂的中1/3禁止使用止血带,以免压迫神经而引起上肢麻痹。在肘或膝关节以下部位扎止血带无止血作用。 Generally on a third of the position of the upper limb in the upper arm, leg and lower 1/3 in the thigh. Upper arm in a third forbids the use of a tourniquet, lest the oppressive nerve and cause upper limb paralysis. Below the elbow, or knee joint parts tourniquet has no hemostatic effects.
  3.上止血带前,先要用毛巾或其他布片、棉絮作垫,止血带不要直接扎在皮肤上;紧急时,可将裤脚或袖口卷起,止血带扎在其上。但需平整,避免皱折。 Before 3. A tourniquet on with a towel or other fabric, cotton cushion, tourniquet don't directly tied to the skin; When an emergency, but their pants or sleeves rolled up, a tourniquet on it. But need to be smooth, to avoid the creasing.
  4.止血带要扎得松紧合适 4. A tourniquet to tie the elastic 过紧易损伤神经和血管,引起神经麻痹和血栓形成;过松则不能达到止血的目的。一般以不能摸到远端动脉搏动或出血停止为度。 Tight easy damage nerves and blood vessels, cause nerve palsy and thrombosis; Too loose, can't achieve the goal of the bleeding. General with can't touch the distal pulses or bleeding stopped.
  5.结扎时间过久,可引起肢体缺血坏疽。 5. Ligation time is too long, can cause limb ischemia necrosis. 因此止血带使用的时间一般不超过1h,需延长时间要每隔1h(上肢或下肢)放松2~3min;放松期间,应用指压法暂时止血。寒冷季节时应每隔30min放松一次。结扎部位超过2h者,应更换比原来较高位置结扎。总时间应不超过4h,否则在放松止血带后会引起挤压综合征。 Therefore the use of a tourniquet time is generally not more than 1 h, to prolong time to every 1 h (upper or lower limbs) relax 2 ~ 3 min. Relax during the application refers to pressure temporarily stop the bleeding. When the cold season every 30 min should loosen up again. Ligation place more than 2 h, than the original high position ligation should be replaced. The total time should be no more than 4 h, otherwise will cause crush syndrome after relax tourniquet.