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手外伤出血的止血方法

    手外伤出血的止血方法
    Hemostasis for Hand Trauma Hemorrhage
    出血是因血管破裂而引起。皮肤表面裂开,血液流出体外称外出血;血管破裂而皮肤完整,或内脏出血,称内出血。
    专家说,出血量超过全身血量40%时,生命就会受到威胁,伤者出现意识不清,呼吸浅而速,必须紧急救护。   专家介绍说,外伤出血时首先应采用“加压包扎止血法”,这种方法适用于头部、躯体、四肢以及身体各处的伤口。止血方法是先用干净、消毒的较厚纱布覆盖在伤口,用手直接在敷料上施压;同时让伤者坐下或躺下,抬高受伤部位,并设法承托;还可用绷带、三角绷带紧紧缠绕加压包扎,协助持续止血。包扎四肢后必须检查手指或脚趾的血液循环,观察检查肢端有无发绀或肿胀情形。
    第二种方法是“指压止血法”,是用手指压住出血伤口的上方(血流的方向),使血管被压在附近的骨骼上,从而阻断血流,达到止血目的。由于会影响整个肢体组织的血液供应,此法应限制使用,每次施压时间不超过10分钟。
    如果是四肢大出血,最好采用“止血带止血法”。专家说,这种方法止血最有效,但容易损伤肢体,影响后期修复。
    具体方法是:上止血带前抬高患肢12分钟,在出血部位的上方,如上臂或大腿的上三分之一处,先用毛巾或棉垫包扎皮肤,然后将止血带拉长拉紧缠绕在毛巾等物外面,不可过紧也不可过松,最多绕两圈,以出血停止为宜。止血带最好用有弹性的橡胶管,严禁使用铁丝、电线等代做止血带。放松止血带时应注意观察出血情况,如出血不多,可改用其他方法止血,以免压迫血管时间过长,造成肢体坏死。支脉出血经初步止血后必须尽快送医院手术治疗。
    Hemorrhage is caused by rupture of blood vessels. The surface of the skin is split and the blood flow out of the body is called external hemorrhage; the blood vessel is broken and the skin is intact, or the visceral hemorrhage is called internal hemorrhage. Experts say that when the amount of bleeding exceeds 40% of the body's blood, life will be threatened. The injured appear unconscious, shallow and fast breathing, and must be urgently rescued. Experts said that when traumatic hemorrhage, first of all, “pressure bandaging hemostasis method” should be used. This method is suitable for head, body, limbs and wounds everywhere in the body. The method of hemostasis is to cover the wound with clean and sterile gauze and apply pressure directly on the dressing by hand; at the same time, let the wounded sit down or lie down, raise the injured part and try to support it; it can also be wrapped tightly with bandages and triangular bandages to help hemostasis. Blood circulation of fingers or toes must be checked after bandaging limbs, and cyanosis or swelling at the extremities must be observed. The second method is “finger pressing hemostasis”, which uses fingers to press the upper part of the bleeding wound (the direction of blood flow), so that the blood vessels are pressed on the nearby skeleton, thus blocking the blood flow and achieving the purpose of hemostasis. Because it will affect the blood supply of the whole limb tissue, this method should be limited to use, each time pressure time should not exceed 10 minutes. If it is massive hemorrhage of limbs, it is best to use “tourniquet hemostasis method”。 Experts say this method is the most effective way to stop bleeding, but it is easy to damage limbs and affect later repair. Specific method is: elevate the affected limb 12 minutes before the upper tourniquet, in the upper part of the bleeding part, such as the upper third of the upper arm or thigh, first wrap the skin with towels or cotton pads, and then stretch and tighten the tourniquet around the towel and other things, not too tight or too loose, at most two circles, to stop bleeding is appropriate. The tourniquet should be made of elastic rubber tube. It is strictly forbidden to use wire or wire instead of tourniquet. When loosening tourniquet, we should pay attention to observe the bleeding situation. If there is not much bleeding, we can use other methods to stop bleeding, so as to avoid the long time of pressing blood vessels and causing limb necrosis. Branch hemorrhage must be treated as soon as possible after initial hemostasis.